Day of Judgment in Islam

In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din (Arabic: يوم الدين‎ "the Day of Judgment") is believed to be ALLAH's final assessment of humanity as it exists. The sequence of events (according to the most commonly held belief) is the annihilation of all creatures allowable, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures/beings.

The exact time when these events are to occur is not specified; however, there are said to be major and minor signs which are to occur near the time of Qiyamah (end time). Many Quranic verses, especially the earlier ones, are dominated by the idea of the nearing of the day of resurrection.

"al-Qiyama" is the name of the 75th Sura of the Qur'an, whose subject is the resurrection.

Like Christians, Muslims believe that the present life is only a trial preparation for the next realm of existence.  This life is a test for each individual for the life after death.  A day will come when the whole universe will be destroyed and the dead will be resurrected for judgment by ALLAH. This day will be the beginning of a life that will never end.  This day is the Day of Judgment.  On that day, all people will be rewarded by ALLAH according to their beliefs and deeds.  Those who die while believing that “There is no true god but ALLAH, and Muhammad (S.A.W.W) is the Messenger (Prophet) of ALLAH  and are Muslim will be rewarded on that day and will be admitted to Paradise forever, as ALLAH has said in Quran:

And those who believe and do good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they dwell therein forever. 
(Quran, 2:82)

But those who die while not believing that “There is no true god but ALLAH, and Muhammad (S.A.W.W) is the Messenger (Prophet) of ALLAH” or are not Muslim will lose Paradise forever and will be sent to Hellfire, as ALLAH has said:

And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and he will be one of the losers in the Hereafter.
(Quran, 3:85)

And as He has said:

Those who have disbelieved and died in disbelief, the earth full of gold would not be accepted from any of them if it were offered as a ransom.  They will have a painful punishment, and they will have no helpers.
(Quran, 3:91)

One may ask, ‘I think Islam is a good religion, but if I were to convert to Islam, my family, friends, and other people would persecute me and make fun of me.  So if I do not convert to Islam, will I enter Paradise and be saved from Hellfire?’
The answer is what ALLAH has said in the preceding verse, “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and he will be one of the losers in the Hereafter.”

After having sent the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W) to call people to Islam, ALLAH does not accept adherence to any religion other than Islam. ALLAH is our Creator and Sustainer.  He created for us whatever is in the earth.  All the blessings and good things we have are from Him.  So after all this, when someone rejects belief in ALLAH, His Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W), or His religion of Islam, it is just that he or she be punished in the Hereafter.  Actually, the main purpose of our creation is to worship ALLAH alone and to obey Him, as ALLAH has said in the Holy Quran (51:56).
This life we live today is a very short life.  The unbelievers on the Day of Judgment will think that the life they lived on earth was only a day or part of a day, as ALLAH has said in Quran:

He (ALLAH) will say, “How many years did you stay on the earth?”  They will say: “We stayed a day or part of a day....”
(Quran, 23:112-113)

And He has said:
Did you then think that We had created you in jest (without any purpose), and that you would not be returned to Us (in the Hereafter)?  So, ALLAH is exalted, the True King.  None has the right to be worshipped but Him...
(Quran, 23:115-116)

The life in the Hereafter is a very real life.  It is not only spiritual, but physical as well.  We will live there with our souls and bodies.
In comparing this world with the Hereafter, the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W) said: {The value of this world compared to that of the Hereafter is like what your finger brings from the sea when you put it in and then take it out.}
[Source: Narrated in Saheeh Muslim, #2858, and Mosnad Ahmad, #17560]

Events described as taking place on the day of judgment

Many chapters/surah of the Qur'an describe proposed events to occur on the day of judgment:
  • Destruction/flattening of the earth
  • Creation of a new earth
  • Resurrection of people
  • Gathering of the people
  • Books of records of the deed accounts of the people shall be given to them in their right hands if they are judged to be good on earth and in their left hands if they are judged to be evil on earth
  • Separation of the people who are hell-bound and heaven-bound

Supposed signs

  1. The appearance of Masih ad-Dajjal
  2. The appearance of Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog)
  3. Three huge earthquakes.
  4. The smoke
  5. The rise (Sunni view) or the return from occlusion (Shia view) of the Mahdi to restore Islam.
  6. The return of Isa (Jesus) from heaven to assist the Mahdi in restoring Islam
  7. Fire from the west of what is now Yemen.